Research


The Research unit is responsible for research and development of a variety of issues such as claims research, assisting with negotiations, court cases, community history, hunting and fishing, and burial sites.  We are also responsible for researching a variety of other issues as directed by TMC such as utilities and land disputes. 

 

Monthly Newsletter Information
The Landing - May 22, 1784

 

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If you recognize anyone in the picture above, please contact Amy to help us identify and date the picture!

 

Contact
Amy Cowie, Researcher
1658 York Rd., Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory, ON
K0K 1X0
Phone: 613-967-3616
Fax: 613-967-6251

 


Genealogy

We have an extensive local history and genealogy collection containing information and pictures.  We invite you to add some of your family photos to our local history collection.

 

kThe library now has access to the online database called Ancestry Library Edition.  Ancestry® Library Edition is one of the most important genealogical collections available today. It has unparalleled coverage of the United States and the United Kingdom, including census, vital, church, court, and immigration records, as well as record collections from Canada and other areas. Ask staff to help you get started in using this online collection. The database is only available at the library. 

 


The Simcoe Deed

By: Trish Rae, Researcher, Mohawks Bay of Quinte

 

Simcoe Deed, Date: 1st April 1793, (220 years ago)

In the years after the Landing on the shores of the Bay of Quinte in 1784, Captain John Deserontyon pressed the government for a deed to the land. It took almost 9 years. But on the 1st of April 1793, Captain John Deserontyon and Captain Isaac Hill attended a meeting at the Council Chamber, Navy Hall in the County of Lincoln. His Excellency John G. Simcoe, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, The Honourable William Osgoode, Chief Justice for Upper Canada, and The Honourable Peter Russell, all members of the Executive Council for Upper Canada were present. At this meeting a report was read and approved. It described the lands to be “reserved for the Mohawk Indians at the Bay of Quinte”:


"The tract will then be bounded in front by the Bay of Quinte, between the mouths of the river Shannon, and Bowen's creek, about twelve miles - westerly by a line running north sixteen degrees west, from the west side of the mouth of the river Shannon, and easterly by a line running north sixteen west, from the mouth of Bowen's Creek, - and northerly by a line running east sixteen degrees north, and west sixteen degrees south at the distance of about thirteen miles back, from the bay of Quinte, measured on the western boundary [?] aforesaid to the north east angle of the township of Thurlow"

 

It was resolved at this meeting that this reserve for the Mohawk Indians settled on the bay of Quinte “be carried into execution and for that purpose that a grant be directed to be made under the great seal of the Province in favor
of the principal Chiefs, on behalf of their nations (or tribe, as above mentioned), or persons in trust for them forever.”

 

The grant that followed this resolution is known as the Simcoe Deed and also known as Treaty 3 ½.

 

The words of the Simcoe Deed are clear in the reasons for the granting of the land, it says:
Know ye that Whereas the Attachment and Fidelity of the Chief Warriors and
People of the Six Nations to Us and so Our Government have been made manifest on divers occasions by their spirited and zealous exertions and by the bravery of their conduct and We being desirous of shewing our approbation of the same, and in recompense of the losses they may have sustained of providing a convenient tract of land under our protection for a safe and comfortable retreat for them and their posterity.

 

The words of the Simcoe Deed say the land is given and granted “unto the Chiefs Warriors Women and people of the said Six Nations and their Heirs for ever”.  The land is granted to “them and their heirs for ever freely and clearly of and from all manner of Rents, fines or services whatsoever to be rendered by them the said Chiefs, Warriors Women and People of the said Six Nations to us or our successors for the same and of and from all conditions, stipulations and agreements whatever except as hereinafter by Us expressed and declared;”

 

The Simcoe Deed goes on to say that that land is given and granted “and by these presents confirming to the said Chiefs, Warriors, Women and People of the said Six Nations and their Heirs the full and entire possession,  Use,  benefit and advantage of the said District or Territory of Land to be held and enjoyed by them in the most free and ample manner and according to the several customs and Usages by them the said Chiefs, Warriors, Women and People of the said Six Nations.


Provided always and be it understood to be the true intent and meaning of these Presents that for the purpose of assuring the said Lands as aforesaid to the said Chiefs Warriors Women and People of the Six Nations and their Heirs and of securing to them the free and undisturbed possession and enjoyment of the same.”

 

The lands were to be protected from trespassers, illegal alienations, and leases, but the Simcoe Deed provided a method whereby the land could be surrendered to the Crown under certain circumstances.

The document was made Letters Patent and the Great Seal of the Province was affixed.

 

Despite the noble words there have been trespassers, illegal alienations and leases. There have been surrenders. But the land of Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory is still held by the Chiefs, Warriors, Women and People of the Six Nations.

The Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte are still here - A community older than Canada, older than Upper Canada. And the grant for the land, the Simcoe Deed, is 220 years old this year.

 


"Our Ontario" Digitization Project

The libraries "Our Ontario" Digitization project is located here

 

womanmale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The library undertook a digitization project in which community members brought in there photographs related to local history. These photo's were scanned and catalogued into a database. Within the database there are many photo's of unknown people that would would greatly appreciate any information from the public.

 

 


Family History: Best Practices

 

Tips for Responding to Genealogical Queries

Provided by Trish Rae, Karen Lewis and Janice Nickerson for
OLA – Conference 2011
Toronto, Ontario
3 February 2011
*************************

Processing Inquiries

  • Listen carefully and try to organize the information presented to you. Use a diagram. Keep good notes.
  •  

  • Consider what your clients are looking for. Are they looking for specific documents (a marriage or death record) or advice to start doing their whole family tree?
  •  

  • The cost of some records should be considered. Some records are available at very low cost via Ancestry or by Inter Library Loan with the Archives of Ontario, Library and Archives Canada or the Family History Library (LDS Church) (if you have a microfilm reader-printer).

 

  • Consult your local sources:
  • Elders with local knowledge
  • Old family scrapbooks
  • Newspapers – birth / marriage / death; other special events
  • Church records
  • Cemetery Sites
  • Check online tools (see below)
  • Develop a list of key contacts for referrals
  • Genealogical societies / branches
  • Local archives
  • Historical societies
  • Professional Genealogists

Advice for clients just starting out

 

  • Start with yourself and work backwards
  •  

  • Decide on the best way to record your work.  There are many books available and software, too.  Experiment a bit and find the one best suited to you.
  •  

  • Keep track of where you found each piece of information. Record the full title of the source, who created it, where you found it, the precise volume, division, page number, etc. If it was on microfilm, record the film number.
  •  

  • Talk to people in your family and old family friends.  Consider using a tape recorder.
  •  

  • Locate and organize old family photos.  These can help your elders remember the people and stories of the past.
  •  

  • A binder is a great low-tech way to keep notes, charts, photos, and documents organized. As you acquire documentation such as birth, marriage and death registrations, integrate those documents into your binder.
  •  

  • Be critical of every source – ask why should I trust this record? Transcriptions and indexes of sources such as Census information are helpful, but whenever you can, try to see the original sources to be sure you’re getting the most accurate information.
  •  

  • Be patient.  This is not a sprint; it is more like a marathon.  And it can also be very addictive.  Pace yourself.

  • Assisting those seeking Indian Status

     

    1. Those seeking Indian Status must apply to the Department of Indian Affairs. The onus is on the applicant to provide documentation to prove entitlement to Indian Status.

     

    2. The Department of Indian Affairs will focus on a person’s link to another person who has or had a Band Number. 

     

    3. The Department of Indian Affairs is primarily interested in registered documents: births, marriages, and deaths.In some cases where registered documents are not available they will accept complementary sources. For example, estate files can be used to establish connections. Church records for baptismal, marriages and burials can be useful.

     

    4. Be aware that there may be changes to the Indian Act in the future that will allow another generation of descendants of Indian women to obtain Status. Prior to 1985 if an Indian woman married “out”, she lost her Indian status and her children had no Indian Status. After 1985 these woman were entitled to regain their Indian Status and the children gained Indian Status as well. However, unless those children married people with Indian Status, their children (the grandchildren of the woman who lost status) would not have Indian Status. Pending changes may mean those grandchildren without Status today may have the right to be registered as Status Indians.


    Trouble Shooting

     

    1. Names

    The spelling of names can change over time.  You can find a family of “Marikkle” on one census, but in a later census the same family may be “Mericle” or “Marical”.  And enumerators can make mistakes.

     

    2. Names of women

    Documentation often shows the paternalism of the past when women were not considered as persons in their own right.  Women’s names can be hard to locate. 

    Be patient.  Be creative.  Sometimes it is the death registration that can help by providing a maiden name. Sometimes the marriage registration or death registration of a sibling can do the same thing.

     

    3.  Ethnic identifiers

    Many Aboriginal people, especially those of mixed heritage, were not recorded as “Indians” in censuses and other records, but were simply listed as “English” or “French”. Don’t rely on just one source.

     

    4. Mistrust, mis-information and bias

    People were not always truthful in the information they provided to census takers or other government officials. Recording officials had their own biases. And many people avoided being reported in official records altogether. Again, don’t rely on a single source.

     

    5. Problems with on-line tools

    On-line tools can be great but they aren’t perfect.

    For example, Ancestry.ca sometimes out-sources transcriptions to Asia so that there are serious problems with the spelling of names and interpretations of place names and abbreviations.  Also, some of the digitized marriage and birth registrations are incomplete – there should be two pages but there is only one.

    There are many inaccurate “trees” submitted by users on Ancestry.ca and many other websites. Be careful about trusting unsourced information.


    Major Records Summary

    Civil Registration / Vital Statistics

    Ontario Civil Registration Records Availability

     

    Ancestry.ca

    Archives of Ontario

    Registrar General

    Birth Registrations

    1869–1911

    1869–1913 microfilm

    1915–present

    Marriage Registrations

    1869–1926
    Earlier records available for some locations

    1869–1928 microfilm
    1929 online in spring
    1930 online in fall

    1858–1869 county registers available on microfilm

    Pre-1858 – district registers available on microfilm, but do not include RC or Anglican marriages.

    1931–present

    Death Registrations

    1869–1936

    1869–1938
    1939 online in spring
    1940 online in fall

    1941–present

     

    Each year Archives of Ontario receives the B/M/D records from the Office of the Registrar General for one more year. There is usually a delay of about a year while these are microfilmed and indexed. Starting in the spring of 2011, all new releases will be made online through AO’s website (free) and not through Ancestry.ca

     

    More recent registrations from the Registrar General are only released to the person identified on the registration (if alive), or proven next-of-kin (if deceased). The current fees for long-form certificates (the only type that are genealogically useful) are: Births $35.00; Marriages $22.00; Deaths $22.00


    Censuses

    Canadian Census Records Availability

     

    Ancestry.ca

    Archives of Ontario

    Canadian Genealogy Centre (LAC)

    Automated
    Genealogy

    1851

    Fully indexed with images

    On microfilm,
    not indexed
    Ontario only

    Images only at present

    Index only, but has links to images at CGC

    1861

    Fully indexed with images

    On microfilm,
    not indexed
    Ontario only

     

     

    1871

    Fully indexed with images

    On microfilm,
    Ontario only
    Index to heads of households only

    Index to heads of households for Ontario only

     

    1881

    Fully indexed with images

    On microfilm,
    not indexed
    Ontario only

    Fully indexed with images

     

    1891

    Fully indexed with images

    On microfilm,
    not indexed
    Ontario only

    Fully indexed with images

     

    1901

    Fully indexed with images

    On microfilm,
    not indexed
    Ontario only

    Images only at present

    Index only, but has links to images at CGC

    1906

    Fully indexed with images, Western Provinces only

     

    Images only at present

     

    1911

    Fully indexed with images

    On microfilm,
    not indexed
    Ontario only

    Images only at present

    Index only, but has links to images at CGC

    1916

    Fully indexed with images, Western Provinces only

     

    Images only at present

     


     

    Where to find other major records

     

    Library and Archives Canada

    • Indian Affairs (INAC, etc) records, including the Indian Register, Band Membership lists, Treaty annuity payments, etc.
    • Military records, including full service files for men who served in WWI
    • Very early crown land records
    • Newspapers on microfilm
    • Many private collections, including papers of fur traders and missionaries

    Archives of Ontario

    • Most crown land records
    • Court records (including probate, criminal and civil)
    • Copies of 19th-century land registry records
    • Copies of some church records
    • Ontario newspapers on microfilm
    • Private collections, including papers of fur traders and missionaries

    Public Libraries

    • Local newpapers on microfilm
    • Local city, town, and rural directories
    • Local history publications
    • Clipping files for local families

    Local Genealogical Societies

    • Transcriptions of gravestone inscriptions from local cemeteries
    • Indexes to censuses, local church records
    • Copies of privately published genealogies

    Church Archives (each denomination has its own)

    • Parish registers (baptisms, marriages and burials)
    • Church-run school records
    • Correspondence of missionaries and clergymen

     


    On-Line Genealogy Tools

    Library and Archives Canada

    www.collectionscanada.gc.ca

     

     

    Archives of Ontario

     www.archives.gov.on.ca

     

     

    Ancestry

    www.ancestry.ca

     

     

    Office of the Registrar General

     

    can be found under

    www.serviceontario.ca

     

     

    Automated Genealogy

    www.automatedgenealogy.com

     

     

    FamilySearch (LDS Church)

    www.familysearch.org

     

     

    Ontario Genealogical Society

    http://www.ogs.on.ca

     

     

    Canada GenWeb

    http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/
    ~canwgw/

     

     

    Association of Professional Genealogists

    http://www.apgen.org

    Ontario Chapter, APG

    ocapg.org

     

     

    Researching Metis Ancestors in Ontario: Records of Indian Affairs

    http://www.metisnation.org/book-home/chapter-10-metis-and-first-nation-sources/records-of-indian-affairs/

     

     


    Indian Status Information

    Assisting those seeking Indian Status

     

    1. Those seeking Indian Status must apply to the Department of Indian Affairs. The onus is on the applicant to provide documentation to prove entitlement to Indian Status.

     

    2. The Department of Indian Affairs will focus on a person’s link to another person who has or had a Band Number. 

     

    3. The Department of Indian Affairs is primarily interested in registered documents: births, marriages, and deaths. In some cases where registered documents are not available they will accept complementary sources. For example, estate files can be used to establish connections. Church records for baptismal, marriages and burials can be useful.

     

    4. Be aware that there may be changes to the Indian Act in the future that will allow another generation of descendants of Indian women to obtain Status. This is the result of the McIvor court case. Prior to 1985 if an Indian woman married “out”, she lost her Indian status and her children had no Indian Status. After 1985 these woman were entitled to regain their Indian Status and the children gained Indian Status as well. However, unless those children married people with Indian Status, their children (the grandchildren of the woman who lost status) would not have Indian Status. Pending changes may mean those grandchildren without Status today may have the right to be registered as Status Indians.

     

    Should these changes go ahead with the passing of Bill C-3, then it is thought a new system of applying for status will be developed. This new system will probably have a new application form, etc.